Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%,[9] and most of it is non-native conifer plantations. In 1782, Poynings' Law was repealed, giving Ireland legislative independence from Great Britain for the first time since 1495. With so much to choose from, there is quite literally sometimes for everyone in gorgeous Ireland. [44], The Chronicle of Ireland records that in 431, Bishop Palladius arrived in Ireland on a mission from Pope Celestine I to minister to the Irish "already believing in Christ". The executive is jointly headed by the first and deputy first minister, with the ministries being allocated in proportion with each party's representation in the assembly. ", "Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn of History", "The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe", "Ptolemy's Map of Ireland: a Modern Decoding", "Scion of traitors and warlords: Why Bush is coy about his Irish links", "The Great Irish Famine: Laws that Isolated and Impoverished the Irish", "Charles James Fox, the Repeal of Poynings Law, and the Act of Union: 1782–1801", "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel par Luc Dheere peintre et sculpteur Gantois[manuscript]", "A Short History of Ireland: The Curse of Cromwell", "Laws in Ireland for the Suppression of Popery", "Ireland AD 1750–1900 The Industrial Age", "1841: A window on Victorian Britain – This Britain", "Ireland Learns to Adapt to a Population Growth Spurt", Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "Ireland's Economy Suffered Record Slump in 2009", "How much discrimination was there under the Unionist regime, 1921–1968? There are frequent horse race meetings and greyhound stadiums are well-attended. In Northern Ireland, English is the de facto official language, but official recognition is afforded to Irish, including specific protective measures under Part III of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. [115] For much of their existence, electricity networks in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were entirely separate. The Republic of Ireland is made up of 26 counties which are a part of the island of Ireland. Irish, though now only the language of a minority, was the vernacular of the Irish people for thousands of years and was possibly introduced during the Iron Age. Inspiration, stories, and information on places to stay, things to do and what's on in Ireland. Aquatic wildlife, such as species of sea turtle, shark, seal, whale, and dolphin, are common off the coast. In the Republic of Ireland, Kilkenny, seat of the Butler dynasty, while no longer a city for administrative purposes (since the 2001 Local Government Act), is entitled by law to continue to use the description. The oldest pub opened already in 900 A.D. GDP fell by 3% in 2008 and by 7.1% in 2009, the worst year since records began (although earnings by foreign-owned businesses continued to grow). He is largely regarded as one of the founders of modern chemistry and is best known for the formulation of Boyle's law.[196]. For example, whilst from the Middle Ages until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century the dominant feature of the Irish economy was the herding of cattle, the number of cattle a person owned was equated to their social standing. Repeated invasions and "plantations" disrupted land-ownership, and multiple failed uprisings also contributed to repeated phases of deportation and of emigration. In 1998, following a ceasefire by the Provisional IRA and multi-party talks, the Good Friday Agreement was concluded as a treaty between the British and Irish governments, annexing the text agreed in the multi-party talks. [95][96][97], In the late 1960s, nationalist grievances were aired publicly in mass civil rights protests, which were often confronted by loyalist counter-protests. Joyce's 1922 novel Ulysses is considered one of the most important works of Modernist literature and his life is celebrated annually on 16 June in Dublin as "Bloomsday". The theory holds that there were four separate Celtic invasions of Ireland. [119][120] The County Mayo field faces some localised opposition over a controversial decision to refine the gas onshore. [86] Its operations ended in September 1941 when police made arrests based on surveillance carried out on the key diplomatic legations in Dublin. [210], Horse racing and greyhound racing are both popular in Ireland. There has also been significant immigration from Lithuania, Czech Republic and Latvia. While salmon and trout fishing remain popular with anglers, salmon fishing in particular received a boost in 2006 with the closing of the salmon driftnet fishery. Despite assistance from France the rebellion was put down by British and Irish government and yeomanry forces. Ireland has a total area of 84,421 km (32,595 sq mi), of which the Republic of Ireland occupies 83 percent. According to contemporary documents and historical analysis, this was achieved through a considerable degree of bribery, with funding provided by the British Secret Service Office, and the awarding of peerages, places and honours to secure votes. [60], By the end of the 15th century, central English authority in Ireland had all but disappeared, and a renewed Irish culture and language, albeit with Norman influences, was dominant again. Provinces & Major Legal Towns. Ireland and Great Britain, together … They share an open border and both are part of the Common Travel Area. The North/South Ministerial Council is an institution through which ministers from the Government of Ireland and the Northern Ireland Executive agree all-island policies. [47][48][page needed], The arts of manuscript illumination, metalworking and sculpture flourished and produced treasures such as the Book of Kells, ornate jewellery and the many carved stone crosses[49] that still dot the island today. Not just a venue. Northern Ireland has produced two World Snooker Champions. There are also many shipwrecks along the coast of Ireland, with some of the best wreck dives being in Malin Head and off the County Cork coast. The Republic of Ireland (Eire) is the only English-speaking Catholic nation. A ring of coastal mountains surround low plains at the centre of the island. A minority, approximately 13,000, retained the Irish Volunteers' name and opposed Ireland's involvement in the war. [202] Soccer is the most widely played team game on the island and the most popular in Northern Ireland.[201][203]. Traditional regional foods can be found throughout the country, for example coddle in Dublin or drisheen in Cork, both a type of sausage, or blaa, a doughy white bread particular to Waterford. Supplies come from the Corrib Gas Field, off the coast of County Mayo, with a decreasing supply coming from the Kinsale gas field off the County Cork coast. Traditionally, Ireland is subdivided into four provinces: Connacht (west), Leinster (east), Munster (south), and Ulster (north). Although not a Nobel Prize winner, James Joyce is widely considered to be one of the most significant writers of the 20th century. [68] The Irish government halted export of corn and kept the army in quarters but did little more. Local Authority areas, 7 in Northern Ireland and 3 in the Republic of Ireland with a population of 826,000 people - 1 in 7 of the population [...] of the island of Ireland live in the region. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, and Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish traditional music and dance has seen a surge in popularity and global coverage since the 1960s. [198], George Johnstone Stoney introduced the term electron in 1891. [128][130], The island consists of varied geological provinces. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant. [65] If a prewar population of 1.5 million is assumed, this would mean that the population was reduced by almost half. Contemporary Irish visual artists of note include Sean Scully, Kevin Abosch, and Alice Maher. Father Nicholas Joseph Callan, Professor of Natural Philosophy in Maynooth College, is best known for his invention of the induction coil, transformer and he discovered an early method of galvanisation in the 19th century. He was elected as Member of Parliament for Ennis in a surprise result and despite being unable to take his seat as a Roman Catholic. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became increasingly sovereign over the following decades, and Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom. Ireland facts for kids Over the century that followed, Norman feudal law gradually replaced the Gaelic Brehon Law so that by the late 13th century the Norman-Irish had established a feudal system throughout much of Ireland. [86][87], Large-scale emigration marked most of the post-WWII period (particularly during the 1950s and 1980s), but beginning in 1987 the economy improved, and the 1990s saw the beginning of substantial economic growth. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom with a local executive and assembly which exercise devolved powers. In that year the British government officially ended its military support of the police in Northern Ireland (Operation Banner) and began withdrawing troops. The west tends to be wetter on average and prone to Atlantic storms, especially in the late autumn and winter months. [77] By the end of the decade, half of all immigration to the United States was from Ireland. [169] As of 2013[update], there were 40 million Irish-Americans[170] and 33 million Americans who claimed Irish ancestry. [189] A comparable writer in Irish is Máirtín Ó Cadhain, whose novel Cré na Cille is regarded as a modernist masterpiece and has been translated into several languages. Since just before the year 2010, Bundoran has hosted European championship surfing. After the passing of the Test Act 1672, and the victory of the forces of the dual monarchy of William and Mary over the Jacobites, Roman Catholics and nonconforming Protestant Dissenters were barred from sitting as members in the Irish Parliament. The Great Famine of 1845–1851 devastated Ireland, as in those years Ireland's population fell by one-third. Common Travel Area rights can only be exercised by citizens of Ireland and the UK. Precipitation falls throughout the year but is light overall, particularly in the east. [32][33] Genetic lineage investigation into the area of Celtic migration to Ireland has led to findings that showed no significant differences in mitochondrial DNA between Ireland and large areas of continental Europe, in contrast to parts of the Y-chromosome pattern. [135][136] In 1999, economically significant finds of natural gas were made in the Corrib Gas Field off the County Mayo coast. This has increased activity off the west coast in parallel with the "West of Shetland" step-out development from the North Sea hydrocarbon province. Salient events in the economic history of Ireland include: Ireland is located in the north-west of Europe, between latitudes 51° and 56° N, and longitudes 11° and 5° W. It is separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea and the North Channel, which has a width of 23 kilometres (14 mi)[125] at its narrowest point. Irish remained the dominant literary language down to the nineteenth century, despite the spread of English from the seventeenth century on. [177], There is now a network of urban Irish speakers in both the Republic and Northern Ireland, especially in Dublin and Belfast,[citation needed] with the children of such Irish speakers sometimes attending Irish-medium schools (Gaelscoil). Temperatures fell as low as −17.2 °C (1 °F) in County Mayo on 20 December[140] and up to a metre (3 ft) of snow fell in mountainous areas. This trend can be seen more recently in the work of artists like Enya, The Saw Doctors, The Corrs, Sinéad O'Connor, Clannad, The Cranberries and The Pogues among others. Dublin, with over 1 million residents in the Greater Dublin Area, is the largest city on the island. The system is similar to that of France or the United States, except that the President is not an executive. [51] These raids added to a pattern of raiding and endemic warfare that was already deep-seated in Ireland. Ireland is an island in north-western Europe which has been divided politically since 1920. The headquarters of the GAA (and the main stadium) is located at the 82,500[205] capacity Croke Park in north Dublin. As such, Ulster is often used as a synonym for Northern Ireland, although the two are not coterminous..mw-parser-output .locmap .od{position:absolute}.mw-parser-output .locmap .id{position:absolute;line-height:0}.mw-parser-output .locmap .l0{font-size:0;position:absolute}.mw-parser-output .locmap .pv{line-height:110%;position:absolute;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .locmap .pl{line-height:110%;position:absolute;top:-0.75em;text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .locmap .pr{line-height:110%;position:absolute;top:-0.75em;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .locmap .pv>div{display:inline;padding:1px}.mw-parser-output .locmap .pl>div{display:inline;padding:1px;float:right}.mw-parser-output .locmap .pr>div{display:inline;padding:1px;float:left}, In the Republic of Ireland, counties form the basis of the system of local government. To prevent this from happening, the Ulster Volunteers were formed in 1913 under the leadership of Edward Carson. Medieval Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of high kings stretching back thousands of years, but modern historians believe the scheme was constructed in the 8th century to justify the status of powerful political groupings by projecting the origins of their rule into the remote past. Usually around 40 days of the year are below freezing 0 °C (32 °F) at inland weather stations, compared to 10 days at coastal stations. Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance and community involvement, with about 2,600 clubs on the island. [66] The new Anglo-Irish ruling class became known as the Protestant Ascendancy. However, it was not until 1949 that the state was declared, officially, to be the Republic of Ireland. About 400 species of birds have been recorded in Ireland. [91], Modernisation brought secularisation in its wake. Northern Ireland qualified for the World Cup finals in 1958 (reaching the quarter-finals), 1982 and 1986 and the European Championship in 2016. The island fields a single international team in most sports. City status does not directly equate with population size. [145][146] Until the end of the Middle Ages, Ireland was heavily forested with native trees such as oak, ash, hazel, birch, alder, willow, aspen, rowan, yew and Scots pine. Smaller groups included the aithechthúatha (see Attacotti), Cálraighe, Cíarraige, Conmaicne, Dartraighe, Déisi, Éile, Fir Bolg, Fortuatha, Gailenga, Gamanraige, Mairtine, Múscraige, Partraige, Soghain, Uaithni, Uí Maine, Uí Liatháin. The Gaelic Revival of the early 20th century has had a long-term influence. A version of the Magna Carta (the Great Charter of Ireland), substituting Dublin for London and the Irish Church for, the English church at the time, the Catholic Church, was published in 1216 and the Parliament of Ireland was founded in 1297. A lesser status (including recognition under Part II of the Charter) is given to Ulster Scots dialects, which are spoken by roughly 2% of Northern Ireland residents, and also spoken by some in the Republic of Ireland. In 1171, Henry arrived in Ireland in order to review the general progress of the expedition. [68][69] Local gentry and charitable organisations provided relief but could do little to prevent the ensuing mortality.[68][69]. Unionists, especially those located in Ulster, were strongly opposed to Home Rule, which they thought would be dominated by Catholic interests. ", "The Irish-American population is seven times larger than Ireland", "Hustling to Find Classrooms For All in a Diverse Ireland", "Ireland's Age of Affluence Comes to an End", "Head-to-Head: The Irish Language Debate", "Table 15: Irish speakers aged 3 years and over in each Province, County and City, classified by frequency of speaking Irish, 2006", "Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999", "Nobel Prize in Physics 1951 – Presentation Speech", "William Thomson: king of Victorian physics", "John Bell: Belfast street named after physicist who proved Einstein wrong", "Five Irish Scientists Who Put Chemistry on the Map", "Initiative's latest ViewerTrack study shows that in Ireland GAA and soccer still dominate the sporting arena, while globally the Superbowl (sic) was the most watched sporting event of 2005", "Sports Participation and Health Among Adults in Ireland", "Croke Park. "Rank of States for Selected Ancestry Groups with 100,000 or more persons: 1980" (PDF). By 1900, however, cultural nationalists had begun the Gaelic revival, which saw the beginnings of modern literature in Irish.

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